Mohammad Mosaddegh ( June 1882 – ۵ March 1967), was an politician. He was the head of a democratically elected government, holding office as the Prime Minister of homeland from 1951 until 1953, when his government was overthrown in a coup d’état aided by the United States’ Central Intelligence Agency and the United Kingdom’s Secret Intelligence Service.
An author, administrator, lawyer, and prominent parliamentarian, his administration introduced a range of progressive social and political reforms such as social security and land reforms, including taxation of the rent on land.
His government’s most notable policy, however, was the nationalization of the persian oil industry, which had been under British control since 1913 through the Anglo-Persian Oil Company (APOC/AIOC) (later British Petroleum and BP).
The British government had grown increasingly distressed over Mosaddegh’s policies and were especially bitter over the loss of their control of the persian oil industry. Repeated attempts to reach a settlement had failed, and, in October 1952, Mosaddegh declared Britain an enemy and cut all diplomatic relations.
Engulfed in a variety of problems following World War II, Britain was unable to resolve the issue single-handedly and looked towards the United States to settle the matter. Initially, the USA had opposed British policies.
After mediation had failed several times to bring about a settlement, American Secretary of State Dean Acheson concluded that the British were “destructive, and determined on a rule-or-ruin policy in homeland.”
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